A3et

King Edward the Elder

Persondiagram

Forældre

Fader Fødselsdato Moder Fødselsdato
King Alfred the great Queen Ealhswith

Partnere

Partner Fødselsdato Børn
Eadhild of England
Ælfflæd Eadgifu
Eadgyth

Slægtskabsrapport

Navn Art Fødselssted Fødselsdato Dødssted Dødsdato
Partner
Ælfflæd Kvindelig partner eller ægtehustru
Børn
Eadgifu Datter
Eadgyth Datter
Eadhild of England Datter
Forældre
King Alfred the great Fader
Queen Ealhswith Moder
Oldebørn
Otto I, Duke of Carinthia Oldesøn 848
Gisela af Frankrig Oldedatter 911
Mathilde af Frankrig Oldedatter 943 981
Tipoldebørn
Adele of Normandy Tipoldedatter
Henrik af Speyer Tipoldesøn 990 1039
Tiptipoldebørn
Adelaide of Poitiers Tiptipoldedatter 945 1004
Konrad II Tiptipoldesøn 990 4.6.1039
Tip3-oldebørn
Henrik III Tip3-oldesøn 1017 1056
Dulce Berenguer Af Barcelona og Aragonia Tip3-oldedatter 1192 1198
Tip4-oldebørn
Kejser Henrik IV Tip4-oldesøn 1050 1106
Berengaria af Portugel Tip4-oldedatter 1195 1221
Tip5-oldebørn
Frederik I Tip5-oldersøn 1050 1105
Konge Christoffer I Tip5-oldersøn 1219 1259
Tip6-oldebørn
Hertug af Swabien Frederik II Tip6-oldesøn 1090 1147
Erik Klippinge Tip6-oldesøn 1249 1286
Fjern efterslægt
Anne Nielsdatter Banner 11th granddaughter Vinstrup 1475
Ellen Jensdatter 12th granddaughter
Ellen Pedersdatter Skram 12th granddaughter
Erik Christoffersen Løvenbalk 9th grandson
Erik Christoffersen Løvenbalk 14th grandson
Erik Jensen 12th grandson Aunsbjerg Herregård Sjørslev, Aunsbjerg, Viborg, Danmark
Gjertrud Jensdatter 12th grandson
Jens Lauridsen Løvenbalk 14th grandson 29.04.1538
Johan Eriksen 10th grandson
Jørgen Lauridsen Løvenbalk 14th grandson Tjele Gods, Viborg, Danmark 1532
Knud Lauridsen Løvenbalk 14th grandson Tjele Gods, Viborg, Danmark 1529
Maren Jensdatter 12th granddaughter Aunsbjerg Herregård Sjørslev, Aunsbjerg, Viborg, Danmark
Maren Lauridsdatter Løvenbalk 14th granddaughter Tjele Gods, Viborg, Danmark
Margrethe Jensdatter 12th granddaughter
Mogens Lauridsen Løvenbalk 14th grandson 1536
Niels Eriksen Banner 10th grandson
Judith af Hohenstaufen 8th granddaughter 1135 7.7.1191
Greve af Thuringen Herman den første 9th grandson 1155 25.4.1217
Agnes af Türingen 10th granddaughter 1206 1247
Johan I af Brandenburg 11th grandson 1213 04.04.1266
Dronning Agnes Brandenburg 12th granddaughter 1257 1304
Konge Christoffer II 13th grandson 1276 Lolland 02.08.1332
Konge Christoffer II 8th grandson 1276 Lolland 02.08.1332
Margrethe Eriksdatter Løvenbalk 10th granddaughter 1322 1350
Niels Eriksen Løvenbalk 10th grandson Aunsbjerg Herregård Sjørslev, Aunsbjerg, Viborg, Danmark 1331 Aunsbjerg Herregård Sjørslev, Aunsbjerg, Viborg, Danmark 1377
Jens Nielsen Løvenbalk 11th grandson Aunsbjerg Herregård Sjørslev, Aunsbjerg, Viborg, Danmark 1344 Aunsbjerg Herregård Sjørslev, Aunsbjerg, Viborg, Danmark 1438
Mogens Jensen Løvenbalk 12th grandson Aunsbjerg Herregård Sjørslev, Aunsbjerg, Viborg, Danmark 1400 Sjørslev, Aunsbjerg, Viborg, Danmark 1441
Laurids Mogensen Løvenbalk 13th grandson Aunsbjerg Herregård Sjørslev, Aunsbjerg, Viborg, Danmark 1454 Tjele Gods, Viborg, Danmark 1500
Jens Nielsen Kaas 13th grandson 1477 Taarupgaard 1519
Niels Jensen Kaas 14th grandson 1505 1534
Bedsteforældre
Æthelwulf of Wessex Bedstefader
Eadburh Bedstemoder
Nobelman Æthelred Mucil Bedstefader
Queen Osburga Bedstemoder 839 854
Oldeforældre
Elfrida Oldemoder
King Coenwulf of Mercia Oldefader
King Egbert of Wessex Oldefader
Oslac Oldefader
Tipoldeforældre
Ealhmund of Kent Tipoldefader
Onkler & tanter
Æthelred of Wessex Onkel
King of Kent Æthelstan Onkel
Fætre/kusiner
Thyra Danebod Kusine
Halvnevøer/niecer
Gundhild Kongemor Halvniece
Harald Blåtand Halvnevø 986
Knud Danaast Halvnevø
Toke Gormsen Halvnevø
Halv-gradnevøer/-niecer
Guldharald Halv-grandnevø
Svend Tveskæg Halv-grandnevø Jellinge 960 England 1014
Halv-grand2-nevøer/-niecer
Estrid Svendsdatter Halv-grand2-niece
Estrid Svendsdatter Halv-grand2-niece
Svend Estridsens Mor Halv-grand2-niece
Harald II Halv-grand2-nevø 889 1018
Knud den Store Halv-grand2-nevø 995 12.11.1035
Børnebørn
Anne Joachimsdatter Flemming 13th granddaughter-in-law
Dronning Margrethe Sambria af Pommeren Tip5-oldesvigerdatter
Else Svendsdatter Udson 12th granddaughter-in-law
Erik Skram 14th grandson-in-law
Konge af Portugal Sancho I Tip3-oldesvigersøn 1211
Ukendt 11th granddaughter-in-law
Ludvig IV Sønne-/dattersøn 10.09.0920 30.09.0954
Liutgarde of Saxony Sønne-/datterdatter 931 18.11.953
Greve Ludwig II 8th grandson-in-law 1128 Neunberg Castle 1172

Notater

Edward the Elder
From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

King of the Anglo-Saxons
Reign 26 October 899 – 17 July 924
Coronation 8 June 900
Kingston upon Thames
Predecessor Alfred
Successor Æthelstan and/or Ælfweard
Born c.874
Died 17 July 924
Farndon, Cheshire, England
Burial New Minster, Winchester, later translated to Hyde Abbey
Spouse Ecgwynn
Ælfflæd
Eadgifu
Issue

Detail
See list
House House of Wessex
Father Alfred, King of Wessex
Mother Ealhswith
Religion Catholicism (pre-reformation)

Edward the Elder (Old English: Eadweard cyning; c. 874–877 – 17 July 924) was an English king. He became king in 899 upon the death of his father, Alfred the Great. His court was at Winchester, previously the capital of Wessex. He captured the eastern Midlands and East Anglia from the Danes in 917 and became ruler of Mercia in 918 upon the death of Æthelflæd, his sister.

All but two of his charters give his title as "Anglorum Saxonum rex" or "king of the Anglo-Saxons".[1] He was the second king of the Anglo-Saxons as this title was created by Alfred.[1] Edward's coinage reads "EADVVEARD REX."[2] The chroniclers record that all England "accepted Edward as lord" in 920.[3] But the fact that York continued to produce its own coinage suggests that Edward's authority was not accepted in Viking-ruled Northumbria.[4] Edward's eponym "the Elder" was first used in Wulfstan's Life of St Æthelwold (c. 996) to distinguish him from the later King Edward the Martyr.

Contents
1 Ætheling
2 Succession and early reign
3 Achievements
4 Family
5 Genealogy
6 Notes
7 References
8 Sources
9 Further reading
10 External links

Ætheling
Edward was the second surviving child and elder son born to Alfred the Great and his Mercian queen, Ealhswith. Edward's birth cannot be dated with certainty. His parents married in 868 and his elder sister Æthelflæd was born soon afterwards as she was herself married in 883. Edward was probably born rather later, in the 870s, and probably between 874 and 877.[5] The chronicle of Peter of Langtoft (died c.1308, and hence writing several centuries later) called him, "[v]ery strong and handsome, and of great intelligence."

Asser's Life of King Alfred reports that Edward was educated at court together with his youngest sister Ælfthryth. His second sister, Æthelgifu, was intended for a life in religion from an early age (it was customary during much of the Middle Ages for noble families to "give" one child to the Church) and was later abbess of Shaftesbury. The youngest sibling, Æthelweard, was educated at a court school where he learned Latin, which suggests that he too was intended for a religious life. Edward and Ælfthryth, however, while they learned the English of the day, received a courtly education, and Asser refers to their taking part in the "pursuits of this present life which are appropriate to the nobility".[6]

The first appearance of Edward in the sources is in 892, in a charter granting land at North Newnton, near Pewsey in Wiltshire, to ealdorman Æthelhelm, where he is called filius regis, the king's son.[7] Although he was the reigning king's elder son, Edward was not certain to succeed his father. Until the 890s, the obvious heirs to the throne were Edward's cousins Æthelwold and Æthelhelm, sons of Æthelred, Alfred's older brother and predecessor as king. Æthelwold and Æthelhelm were around ten years older than Edward. Æthelhelm disappears from view in the 890s, seemingly dead, but a charter probably from that decade shows Æthelwold witnessing before Edward, and the order of witnesses is generally believed to relate to their status.[8] As well as his greater age and experience, Æthelwold may have had another advantage over Edward where the succession was concerned. While Alfred's wife Ealhswith is never described as queen and was never crowned, Æthelwold and Æthelhelm's mother Wulfthryth was called queen.[9]

Succession and early reign
Silver brooch imitating a coin of Edward the Elder, c. 920, found in Rome, Italy. British Museum.
When Alfred died, Edward's cousin Æthelwold, the son of King Æthelred of Wessex, rose up to claim the throne and began Æthelwold's Revolt. He seized Wimborne, in Dorset, where his father was buried, and Christchurch (then in Hampshire, now in Dorset). Edward marched to Badbury and offered battle, but Æthelwold refused to leave Wimborne. Just when it looked as if Edward was going to attack Wimborne, Æthelwold left in the night, and joined the Danes in Northumbria, where he was announced as King. In the meantime, Edward was crowned on 8 June 900, possibly at Kingston upon Thames.[a]

In 901, Æthelwold came with a fleet to Essex, and encouraged the Danes in East Anglia to rise up. In the following year he attacked English Mercia and northern Wessex. Edward retaliated by ravaging East Anglia, but when he retreated south the men of Kent disobeyed the order to retire, and were intercepted by the Danish army. The two sides met at the Battle of the Holme on 13 December 902. According to the Anglo-Saxon Chronicle, the Danes "kept the place of slaughter", but they suffered heavy losses, including Æthelwold and a King Eohric, possibly of the East Anglian Danes.[11]

Relations with the North proved problematic for Edward for several more years. The Anglo-Saxon Chronicle mentions that he made peace with the East Anglian and Northumbrian Danes "of necessity". There is also a mention of the regaining of Chester in 907, which may be an indication that the city was taken in battle.[12]

In 909, Edward sent an army to harass Northumbria. In the following year, the Northumbrians retaliated by attacking Mercia, but they were met by the combined Mercian and West Saxon army at the Battle of Tettenhall, where the Northumbrian Danes were destroyed. From that point, they never raided south of the River Humber.

Edward then began the construction of a number of fortresses (burhs), at Hertford, Witham and Bridgnorth. He is also said to have built a fortress at Scergeat, but that location has not been identified. This series of fortresses kept the Danes at bay. Other forts were built at Tamworth, Stafford, Eddisbury and Warwick. These burhs were built to the same specifications (within centimetres) as those within the territory that his father had controlled; it has been suggested on this basis that Edward actually built them all.

Achievements
Edward extended the control of Wessex over the whole of Mercia, East Anglia and Essex, conquering lands occupied by the Danes and bringing the residual autonomy of Mercia to an end in 918, after the death of his sister, Æthelflæd. Æthelflæd's daughter, Ælfwynn, was named as her successor, but Edward deposed her, bringing Mercia under his direct control. He had already annexed the cities of London and Oxford and the surrounding lands of Oxfordshire and Middlesex in 911. The first half of the tenth century was critical in the development of the shire as principal administrative unit in England, and Edward was probably responsible for shiring Mercia and the eastern Danelaw.[14] By 918, all of the Danes south of the Humber had submitted to him. By the end of his reign, the Norse, the Scots and the Welsh had acknowledged him as "father and lord".[15] This recognition of Edward's overlordship in Scotland led to his successors' claims of suzerainty over that Kingdom.

Edward reorganized the Church in Wessex, creating new bishoprics at Ramsbury and Sonning, Wells and Crediton. Despite this, there is little indication that Edward was particularly religious. In fact, the Pope delivered a reprimand to him to pay more attention to his religious responsibilities

Edward probably divided the West Midlands into shires between 919 and 924, ignoring traditional regional and tribal boundaries. His rearrangement aroused Mercian opposition,[17] and he died leading an army against a rebellion by the garrison at Chester in alliance with the Welsh, on 17 July 924 at Farndon-Upon-Dee[18] and was buried in the New Minster in Winchester, Hampshire, which he himself had established in 901. After the Norman Conquest, the minster was replaced by Hyde Abbey to the north of the city and Edward's body was transferred there. His last resting place is currently marked by a cross-inscribed stone slab within the outline of the old abbey marked out in a public park.

Edward's eponym the Elder was first used in the 10th century, in Wulfstan's Life of St Æthelwold, to distinguish him from the later King Edward the Martyr.

Family
Edward had four siblings, including Æthelflæd, Lady of the Mercians, and Ælfthryth, Countess of Flanders.

King Edward had about fourteen children from three marriages (or according to some sources, an extramarital relationship and two marriages).

Edward first married Ecgwynn around 893. Conflicting information is given about her by different sources, none of which pre-date the Conquest.[19][20] Their children were

The future King Athelstan (c.893 – 939)
A daughter who married Sihtric Cáech, Viking king of Dublin and then of York (alternatively daughter by one of his other wives).
In 899, Edward married Ælfflæd, a daughter of Æthelhelm, the ealdorman of Wiltshire.[21] Their children were

Eadgifu (902 – after 955), who married Charles the Simple[22]
Ælfweard of Wessex (904–924), whose death occurred 16 days after Edward's. Later sources sometimes portray him as Edward's successor, at least in part of the kingdom.
Eadgyth (910–946), who married Otto I, Holy Roman Emperor[24]
Eadhild, who married Hugh the Great, Duke of the Franks and Count of Paris[22]
Ælfgifu who married "a prince near the Alps", sometimes identified with Conrad of Burgundy or Boleslaus II of Bohemia or Boleslaus I, Duke of Bohemia
Eadflæd, who became a nun
Edwin of Wessex
Edward married for a third time, about 919, to Eadgifu,[21] the daughter of Sigehelm, the ealdorman of Kent. Their children were

The future king Edmund (922–946)
The future king Eadred (died 955)
Saint Edburga of Winchester (died 960)
Eadgifu, married "Louis, Prince of Aquitaine", whose identity is disputed, as is the very existence of this daughter.
Eadgifu outlived her husband and her sons, and was alive during the reign of her grandson, King Edgar. William of Malmsbury's history De antiquitate Glastonie ecclesiae claims that Edward's second wife, Ælfflæd, was also alive after Edward's death, but this is the only known source for that claim.

Medier

Billeder

Edward the elder 2

Edward_the_Elder

Edward the elder

Historie

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